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General Farm Management

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Access Assessment Process: Detailed Assessment (TIN075)
This Detailed Assessment guidance has been written to help advisers assess new access routes, in particular coastal access routes. It is one of a series of three information notes that demonstrate good practice for integrating access, biodiversity and landscape objectives. Together these notes provide detailed guidance on how to adopt a consistent approach to implementing new access projects that meets the legal requirements to assess the implications of a proposed access project for nature conservation. The purpose of this paper is to provide a structure when exercising judgement under various statutory obligations. It is intended to assist and provide an aide-memoir when exercising judgement, and should not be interpreted as formulaic or prescriptive. It may be tailored to fit the circumstances prevailing. Natural England, TIN075, 19 July 2010.

Access Assessment Process: Initial Review (TIN074)
This guidance on the Initial Review has been written to help advisers assess new access routes, in particular coastal access routes. It is one of a series of three information notes that demonstrate good practice for integrating access, biodiversity and landscape objectives. Together these notes provide detailed guidance on how to adopt a consistent approach to implementing new access projects that meets legal requirements to assess the implications of proposed access projects for nature conservation. This note provides guidance on undertaking an Initial Review which is the first stage of the Access Assessment Process. This is a screening stage, equivalent to the Likely Significant Effect (LSE) test under Regulation 61 of The Conservation of Habitats and Species Regulations 2010. The purpose of this note is to provide a structure when exercising judgement under various statutory obligations. It is intended to assist and provide an aide-memoir when exercising judgement, and should not be interpreted as formulaic or prescriptive. Natural England, TIN074, 19 July 2010.

Access Assessment Process: Procedure Overview (TIN073)
This overview has been written to help advisers assess new access routes, in particular coastal access routes. It is one of a series of three information notes that demonstrate good practice for integrating access, biodiversity and landscape objectives. Together these notes provide detailed guidance on how to adopt a consistent approach to implementing new access projects that meets the legal requirements to assess the implications of a proposed access project for nature conservation. A range of sites and factors can be assessed as part of this process. However, the process has been specifically designed to include an assessment of any likely effects on Natura 2000 (N2K) sites so that the assessment and decision-making process can meet the requirements of Regulation 61 of The Conservation of Habitats and Species Regulations 2010 (the Habitats Regulations). Natural England, TIN073, 19 July 2010.

Access Rights - Managing Public Access to Land
This collection of documents published by the Countryside Agency provide detailed guidance for land managers on the new access rights. This collection contains information on access management, public liability, the country code, statutory restrictions and signs on public land. Countryside Agency, February 2004.

Access: Changes to Agri-environment Access Options concerning eligibility and special projects
Natural England has agreed with Defra that eligibility for access payments in Environmental Stewardship be extended to cover all voluntary bodies (including the National Trust, RSPB and the Wildlife Trusts) and Local Authorities. This document outlines these changes. Natural England, 2010.

Badger gates in rabbit-proof fencing (TIN026)
Where rabbit-proof fencing cuts across badger runs, particularly near active setts, the badgers are likely to dig under or make holes in the netting, thus allowing rabbits to cross the fence. Careful positioning of badger gates where the netting crosses badger runs can help prevent damage to the fence, whilst still allowing badgers to carry on using these routes. Natural England, TIN026, 5 November 2007.

Bracken Control: A Guide to Best Practice (SNH)
This leaflet is intended for farmers and moorland managers. It provides guidance on bracken control and preparing a bracken management plan. Scottish Natural Heritage (SNH), SEPA, Forestry Commission, Scottish Water & Scottish Government, June 2008.

Coastal Access Plans in England (TIN096)
Under the provisions of section 51 of the National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act 1949 (as amended by Part 8 of the Marine and Coastal Access Act 2009) a Coastal Access Report must be submitted to the Secretary of State for each ‘stretch’ of English coastline. This report is prepared by, or on behalf of, Natural England within the Coastal Access Implementation Process described in Natural England’s Coastal Access Scheme. The purpose of this note is to explain to Natural England staff and others preparing reports what needs to be done to meet the requirements of the SEA Directive and Habitats Regulations and how these fit into the Coastal Access Implementation Process. Natural England, TIN096, 10 June 2011.

Code of Good Farming Practice (Wales)
This document suite covers the Code of Good Farming Practice Wales. The summary leaflet is available as HTML and pdf. The full Code which was part of the RDP Wales 2000-2006 is available as pdf.

Colorado Beetle - Keep it out of Britain (PB2185)
The Colorado beetle is not established in the UK and is a notifiable quarantine pest, whose introduction is prohibited under the EC Single Market Protected zone arrangements for Plant Health. This leaflet will aid identification & explains what needs to be done if the beetle is discovered in the UK. This link also provides access to a photo gallery for the Colorado Beetle. Defra, PB2185, 1998.

Common Land Toolkit (NE285)
These documents provide practical guidance for those involved with common land which remains under practical agricultural management by farmers and commoners. They can be used by practitioners seeking the sustainable management of commons to provide the widest possible range of public benefits. The documents provide background information on commons, technical and legal aspects relating to commons and defining or constraining their management, and help for those involved with management. Natural England, NE285, 2010.

Consignment Notes: Standard Procedure. A guide to the Hazardous Waste Regulations (Environment Agency)
If you are a producer, consignor or holder (see the next page) and you want to have the hazardous waste on your site removed, you need a consignment note to move that waste. This guide tells you when you might not need consignment notes; where to get consignment notes; how to fill in consignment notes; all about consignment note codes; who fills in the different parts of the note; and why there are three sheets to each standard consignment note and who has each copy. This guide gives details of the standard consignment procedures for hazardous waste moved within England and Wales. Environment Agency, HWR03A Version 4.0, January 2010.

Countryside Access: A guide to definitive maps and changes to public rights of way (NE112)
A guide about definitive maps - the legal record of public rights of way - and the ways in which both those maps and individual rights of way can be changed. Countryside Agency, NE112, November 2008.

Countryside Code 2004
This is an updated version of the Countryside Code.This is the first update to the guidance note for 50 years. This resource provides access to a short booklet, leaflet and a video clip. Countryside Agency, 2004.

Cross Compliance Summary of Key Points (PB12277)
The Cross Compliance Summary of Key Points summarises the Good Agricultural and Environmental Conditions (GAECs) and the SMRs as well as highlighting the key Cross Compliance dates in the year. Defra, PB12277, 2006.

Electric Fence Reference Manual
This DEFRA document is a full and detailed handbook on all aspects of electric fencing. Research and Development Surveillance Report 607 published in 2003.

Emergencies on Livestock Farms (PB1147)
This booklet provides ordinary sensible management practice to avoid and mitigate emergencies on livestock farms. It covers alarm systems, ventilation systems, power supplies, fire, prevention procedures, casualty slaughter and straff training. Defra as MAFF, PB1147, 1992.

Environmental Stewardship Scheme
Environmental Stewardship (ES) was launched in England 3rd March 2005. This leaflet provides a broad outline of the scheme. Defra, 2004.

Farm Business Benchmarking Online (PB9842)
As CAP reform takes hold, farmers find themselves in a brand new business environment. To make sound decisions farmers need to know your business’s strengths and weaknesses. Farm Business Benchmarking Online will help. It has been developed to enable users to quickly compare results for their business with results from the Farm Business Survey. This is a guide to the Defra online service. Defra, PB9842, 2004.

Farm Fires - Advice on Farm Animal Welfare (PB9326)
An advisory document to help minimise risks to livestock from farm fires. Defra, PB9326, 2004.

Guide to those taking part in Alphachloralose stupefying treatments against feral pigeons (TIN007)
Stupefying treatments can only be used to capture feral pigeons Columbia livia by trained operators under the authority of a licence issued by Natural England. Natural England, TIN007, September 2007.

Guide to those taking part in mist-netting birds in buildings (TIN006)
Mist-netting is a technique enabling birds to be captured whilst in flight without causing them harm. The mist-nets themselves are constructed of very fine black netting that is inconspicuous to birds. Mist-nets may be used to take birds for the purposes of preserving public health only under the authority of a licence issued by Natural England. Natural England, TIN006, May 2010.

Hazardous Waste Record Keeping: A guide to the Hazardous Waste Regulations (Environment Agency)
The Hazardous Waste Regulations require those involved in the production, transfer and receipt of hazardous waste to keep a register. The register should contain the records that are required by the Regulations. This guide explains to Producers, Holders and Consignors; Carriers; and Consignees. What records they are required to keep in their register, where this register should be kept, and how long the records must be kept. This guide also explains the requirement for a consignee to send a return to the producer or holder of the waste, the right to information, and the duty to provide records to us. Environment Agency, HWR05 Version 4.0, April 2009.

Hunting Act 2004 - A Brief Guide (PB10433)
This Defra leaflet is intended to provide a brief guide to the Hunting Act 2004. It is not a definitive statement of law, but a common sense summary. Details of how to obtain further information about the Act itself, and the guidance and support material mentioned, are given at the end of the leaflet. Defra, PB10433, January 2005.

Japanese Knotweed - Alien Invader
Japanese knotweed is a serious problem in the UK as it can be very destructive to habitats by out-competing the native flora. This short leaflet provides basic information for management. The HTML version provides a link to the Japanese Knotweed Code of Practice. Environment Agency - undated.

Japanese Knotweed - Guidance for householders and landowners
Japanese knotweed is a foreign invasive plant that is severely damaging our countryside and property. This booklet gives guidance on identification and explains current good practice to prevent spread and maintain control. Environment Agency, September 2004.

Landfill Directive
A brief guide to the Landfill Directive providing answers to a number of questions. Defra, 2003

Lawful Development Certificates. A User's Guide
This user's guide is intended to help anyone who is thinking of applying for a 'lawful development certifi cate' or who wishes to appeal against the planning authority’s decision on a certifi cate application. Department for Communities and Local Government, December 2007.

Maritime Cliff and Slope Inventory: digitising guidelines and quality assurance procedures (TIN011)
This document illustrates the recommended approach to creating a MapInfo dataset conforming to the Maritime Cliff and Slope Inventory specifications. It is intended for use by contractors creating Inventory data, and Natural England staff assessing the quality of contract products. Natural England, TIN011, October 2007.

Maritime Cliff and Slope Inventory: MapInfo table specification (TIN010)
This document describes the structure of the MapInfo data tables for the Maritime Cliff and Slope Inventory. It is intended for use by contractors creating inventory data, and Natural England staff assessing the quality of contract products. Natural England, TIN010, October 2007.

Moles: Options for management and control (TIN033)
The mole is a common British mammal and, although not often seen, the results of its tunnelling are well known and may cause damage in a range of situations. In gardens and amenity areas, molehills and tunnels can be a significant nuisance. In agriculture, contamination of grass by soil may lead to poor quality silage being produced. There is also a risk of damaging grass-cutting machinery and stock. Mole runs may disturb roots and adversely affect plant growth. This leaflet is intended to give information on the principle methods of control, providing advice on what methods are suitable in different situations, and whether there are restrictions on who can use them. Natural England, TIN033, 17 May 2010.

Organic Farming (Natural England)
The purpose of this leaflet is to provide a broad review of organic farming and organic farming systems. Natural England, 2008.

Potato Ring Rot (PB9104 & PB10073)
Ring rot is caused by the bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus. It is a notifiable disease that is listed in the EC Plant Health Directive. This leaflet provides information on the disease and what to do if you discover it. This resource also includes a document detailing the lessons learnt from the 2003 outbreak in Wales. Defra, PB9104 & PB10073, 2003-2004.

Poultry Farms: Code of Practice for the prevention and control of rodent infestations on poultry farms (PB13233)
Rats and mice are commonly found close to poultry units. They pose a number of problems including a threat to salmonella control. This booklet provides guidance on the prevention and control of rodent infestations. Defra, PB13233, 2009.

Public Access and Land Management (SNH)
Public Access and Land Management (PALM) is designed to help farmers, crofters, foresters, forest owners, estate managers, and their advisors think about how to integrate access and land management following the introduction of the Land Reform (Scotland) Act 2003 in February 2005. It summarises obligations under Part 1 of this Act and other relevant legislation and describes ways of dealing with issues arising from access to the outdoors. The guide promotes a planned approach that supports recreational users in exercising their right of responsible access and land managers to continue earning their living from the countryside. Scottish Natural Heritage (SNH), ISBN: 978 1 85397 516 5, HS3k0507, April 2007.

Rabbits: Management options for preventing damage (TIN003)
Rabbits cause extensive economic losses to agricultural, horticultural and forestry interests and are considered to be a major pest. This leaflet provides advice on the damage, its control and legal considerations. Natural England, TIN003, May 2010.

Rabbits: Use of cage-trapping to prevent agricultural damage (TIN024)
Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) cause extensive economic losses to agricultural, horticultural and forestry interests. Landowners and occupiers therefore require cost–effective and humane means of controlling rabbit numbers. The use of cage traps, baited with carrot or other palatable material, is a humane and effective way of managing rabbits. Natural England, TIN024, 17 May 2010.

Rabbits: Use of fencing to prevent agricultural damage (TIN023)
Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) cause extensive economic losses to agricultural, horticultural and forestry interests. Landowners and occupiers therefore require cost-effective and humane means of controlling rabbit numbers. One of the most common forms of managing the problems rabbits pose is to deny them access to vulnerable areas. Fencing is currently recommended as a humane and environmentally acceptable means of excluding rabbits and thereby reducing damage to agricultural, horticultural or forestry interests. Natural England, TIN023, 5 November 2007.

Ragwort - Code of Practice on How to Prevent the Spread of Ragwort (PB9840)
This DEFRA Code of Practice aims to significantly reduce the risk that livestock might be poisoned by Ragwort. The Code provides comprehensive guidance on when, where and how to control ragwort. It is intended for use by all landowners and occupiers. Defra, PB9840, revised March 2007.

Ragwort - Towards a Management Strategy
The following Information Note has been prepared by English Nature to help inform the debate as to the policy that should be adopted for a common ragwort Senecio jacobaea management strategy in the UK. English Nature, June 2003.

Rat Poison - The Threat to Red Kites and Other Wildlife
The newer ‘second-generation’ anticoagulant rodenticides can persist & accumulate in the bodies of non-target wildlife, eventually killing them. This leaflet gives guidance on how to minimise the risks to birds of prey when undertaking rodent control. This leaflet was modified by the Welsh Kite Trust/Countryside Council for Wales/RSPB Cymru from a leaflet produced by English Nature and RSPB with the assistance of the HSE. December 2004.

Signs Guidance for Farmers and other Land Managers: Using advisory signs to inform the public about your day-to-day land management operations (SNH)
The Land Reform (Scotland) Act 2003 gives everyone a right of responsible access to most land and inland water in Scotland. The Act is underpinned by the Scottish Outdoor Access Code ('the Code'), which provides detailed guidance on the rights and responsibilities of countryside users and land managers. The purpose of this publication is to advise and reassure land managers (farmers, crofters, estate factors etc.) on when, where and how to use appropriate and effective signage in accordance with the Act and Code. It therefore has a limited and specific purpose. The focus is on circumstances where it's reasonable for land managers to want to put up advisory signs on their own, rather than situations - such as protected areas - where they would be working in partnership with others. The publication does not cover signage for waymarking or promoting visitor facilities and infrastructure, and it's not meant in any way to replace existing Health & Safety obligations and guidance. Scottish Natural Heritage (SNH), ISBN 1 85397 4706, NP2K 0306, 2006.

Waste - Tackling Flytipping
This document has been produced by the Fly Tipping Stakeholders Forum and contains practical guidance to help landowners, managers and members of the public combat fly tipping. It is promoted as best practice by the Environment Agency and other forum members. 1999.

Waste: Creating a better farming environment. Our approach to Agricultural Waste Regulation during 2009 (Environment Agency)
This document sets out the Environment Agency's approach to regulating the treatment and disposal of agricultural waste. It has been drafted with reference to the principles of Better Regulation and the requirements of the Regulator’s Compliance Code. This document does not relate to the recovery and disposal of wastes which have not been produced by agricultural activities. Environment Agency, 2009.

Wildlife Incident Investigation Scheme - Information Leaflet (PB8003)
This leaflet explains the Defra WII which aims to identify any unexpected effects of pesticides (in the environment) on animals. It helps Defra to take measures to minimise the risks of such incidents re-occurring. The scheme helps to keep the use of pesticides, in the country and town safe for you, your pets and wildlife. Defra, PB8003, 2003.

Wildlife Incident Investigation Scheme - Reports (PB9038 & PB10337)
In the UK the Wildlife Incident Investigation Scheme investigates deaths of wildlife, including beneficial insects, pets and some livestock, where there is strong evidence to suggest that pesticide poisoning may be involved. These publications reports the statistics for 2003 and 2002. Defra, PB9038, 2003 and PB10337, 2005.

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